He is not concerned about his employees as human beings, but how much their hands can produce during the workday, resulting with money in his pocket. Thomas Gradgrind in particular always gives importance to facts and raises his children to be hard, machine-like and epitomes of facts and they lack any emotions. As a result, he is cast out of the workers’ group. The Industrial revolution happened in many countries, but was initially focused on Britain.

Sissy fails, both at school and at home, to comply with the mathematical rationalizations of utilitarianism because she is empathetic and imaginative. .

For example, if one person must suffer to make other people happy, then in the Utilitarian terms it is acceptable to make that person suffer.

Consequently, many novelists and philosophers wrote to further condemn this social, economic and political reform. “Found” 228).

Josiah Bounderby is another prime example of utilitarianism. Hard Times The Theme Of The Utilitarianism. Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does. Dickens’ ultimate message is to show the value of imagination, art, and human connection in a place dominated by fact and rationality. The rate of accidents was very high. She care for her own self interest and has not bring a new product opportunity to FAA Case: Re Come 191 1 Fact: A father had been assisted in his. The Social Novel in England 1830-1850. PrintSanders, Andrew. She has faith in a better tomorrow that is based on love, not material improvement. Moreover, since Utilitarianism assumes that what is good for majority is good for everyone, individual preferences are ignored. She stays in the marriage with Bounderby, and goes about life normally and factually, until she is faced with a dilemma and panics. It is fairly easy to see that Dickens holds a contempt for Bounderby and the utilitarian philosophy he carries. meaning to his books, as they are not just plain fiction. His utilitarian philosophy is similar to Gradgrinds in the sense that factuality is the single most important virtue that one could posses. Ladjaha Cooper Mrs. Barbara Walls English 70 (32092) 13 March 2014 Facts Alone are not enough In the novel Hard Times, Charles Dickens connives a theme of utilitarianism, along with education and industrialization. London. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. “The Great Manufacturer” 81). This reasoning was absolutely correct from the scientific and the Utilitarian point of view, but it rejected any emotional considerations.

Dickens sets the novel in mid-nineteenth century Britain, where the, The 19th century was a time of massive change socially, politically and scientifically. Get Your Custom Essay The divorce laws are the privilege of wealthy and powerful people and are not accessible to the rest of society. The Oxford history of England. “An ugly citadel,” Dickens tells us, “where time went on like its own machinery” (Book I. Charles Dickens and Mark Twain's lessons “Murdering The Innocents” 2). In Book II, Bounderby wishes to hang every and each worker. Mr. Sparling ( Log Out /  He is one of the wealthiest people in Coketown; owning a bank and a factory, but is not really a likable person. ” REFERENCES * All references to Bentham's Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation will be to the section of it republished in Burr and Goldinger's Philosophy and Contemporary Issues. In the Short Oxford History of English Literature, Andrew Sanders claims that Hard Times is a “bitter satire on the effects of the Industrial Revolution in Northern England” (407). Fact superior to imagination is one of the main themes of this novel, apparent mainly in book one. Victorian Studies. Rich people are privileged and can even break laws with the help of money while the destitute are not only weakened by poverty, but they are also deprived of the least social justice; the worst of all is that there is no way out to get rid of their misery. Margaret Atwood highlights the

The theory fails to acknowledge any individual rights that could not be violated for the sake of the greater good. The school teachers are compared to a gun loaded to its muzzle by facts ready to be exploded to the children. The main unhappy marriage showcased by the novel is between Louisa Gradgrind and Mr. Bounderby. Dickens titles the books. Generally, those who were not well-educated did not have any money, while the well-educated ones such as Bounderby and Gradgrind were wealthy. “Preliminary Dissertation Concerning the Fundamental Principle of Virtue or Morality.” 1781. Also during this time the literary movements of Romanticism and Victorianism emerged. English 4 The influence of utilitarianism is shown particularly by two characters in the novel, Gradgrind and Bounderby. Dickens obviously had a definitive opinion of the way life should be lived and did an excellent job of depicting it.

F.H Bradley expresses his disapproval in his Ethical Studies (1876), and Dickens does the same in both Great Expectations (1861) and Hard Times (1854) by showing all the mischievousness and weaknesses of this ethical system.

The circus people are simple, open-minded human beings whose goal in life is to make people laugh. The people that did not fall victim to the utilitarian trap were able to live their lives happily and freely, able to love, laugh, and use their imagination; which is the way life ought to be lived. Victorian Britain: An Encyclopedia. And yet at present, 158 years after its first publication, Charles Dickens’ tale of industrialization and its implications still holds a prominent place in today’s society. As a social critic, he claims in his letters to “strike the heaviest blow in [his] power” to side with those who struggle against a miserable situation stemming from a Capitalist system which strongly permeates every corner of existence.

They did not consider, however, the children’s need for fiction, poetry, and other fine arts that are used to expand children’s minds, all of which are essential today in order to produce well-rounded human beings through the educational process. When Bitzer realizes that Tom has robbed the bank and catches him, Mr. Gradgrind begs him to let Tom go, reminding him of all of the hard work that was put on him while at the school. Tom is a young man who, so fed up with his father’s strictness and repetition, revolts against him and leaves home to work in Mr. Bounderby’s bank. “The Gradgrind School : Political Economy in the Classroom”. Generally, those who were not well-educated did not have any money, while the well-educated ones such as Bounderby and Gradgrind were wealthy. https://phdessay.com/utalitarian-principle-in-charles-dickens-hard-times/, Failure of Thomas Gradgrind (Hard Times by Charles Dickens), A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens Critical Essay, Hard Times: Many Symbols about Human Nature. custom paper from our expert writers, Utalitarian Principle in Charles Dickens Hard Times. His method was somewhat indirect in the sense that he worked backwards to get his point across, but turned out to be very effective as the story progressed. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. In turn, the children are punished for enjoying artistic entertainment such as storybooks about fairies and watching circus performers. This results in some very warped human beings. This was definitely unfair but the social classes were structured in a way which allowed those who had money to look down upon those who were less fortunate. When Sissy is told by a teacher about a city where only 25 of one million inhabitants were starving, she comments, “it must be just as hard upon those who were starved.” She is asked by the teacher if a nation with “fifty millions of money” is a prosperous nation. His novel Hard Times demonstrates the invasion of utilitarianism and its economic implications into human relationships and education. He discards. Tom, now out from under his fathers wing, he begins to drink and gamble heavily. When he falls into a mine shaft on his way back to Coketown to clear his name of the charge of robbing Bounderby’s bank, Stephen comforts himself by gazing at a particularly bright star that seems to shine on him in his “pain and trouble. She stays in the marriage with Bounderby, and goes about life normally and factually, until she is faced with a dilemma and panics. House, Madeline and al. Accordingly, the gap between social classes has its roots in the embrace of the ideology of Utilitarianism and the concept of “Pursuit of Happiness”. Utilitarianism is the belief that something is morally right if it helps a majority of people. Tom is a young man who, so fed up with his father’s strictness and repetition, revolts against him and leaves home to work in Mr. Bounderby’s bank. individual bourgeois manufacturer himself”, Karl Marx in his Manifesto Eventually, to get out of a deep gambling debt, he robs a bank and is forced to flee the area. ” Through Stephen, Dickens suggests that industrialization threatens to compromise both the employee’s and employer’s moral integrity, thereby creating a social muddle to which there is no easy solution. While Dickens was writing Hard Times, Utilitarianism was the prominent philosophy in industrial England, founded by Jeremy Bentham.

Dickens aims his criticism both to school and to home-education. Gradgrinds two oldest children, Tom and Louisa, are examples of how this utilitarian method failed miserably. The first; Mr. Thomas Gradgrind, … He not only paves the way for his children to embrace the Utilitarian ideology, but he also kills in them what makes them human: their emotions, spontaneity, and imagination. New York: Routledge, 2007. Don't use plagiarized sources. Humans are also driven by social bonds and concerns that go beyond themselves and their immediate communities. Dickens does not tell us much about the success of the other students of the school besides Bitzer, who is fairly successful on paper, but does not have the capacity as a person to deal with life’s everyday struggles.

“The Key Note” 2, 9, 21). ( Log Out /  The people who knew the factual information, (utilitarians) were successful, while those who did not were reduced to working in the factories of the utilitarians. "My students can't get enough of your charts and their results have gone through the roof." May 5, 2014 However, he also refuses to spy on his fellow workers for Bounderby, who consequently sends him away. eople in insane productivity.

There is no room for imaginative answers. He sets interest-based love against that of the real, emotional, tender and uncalculated one. Anti-utilitarians, as described in the anthology Degrowth: A Vocabulary for a New Era, believe there is more behind human action than selfish desires for pleasure or aversion to pain. One must think that he is beginning to doubt his philosophy after seeing it backfire in his face more than once. An Essay on the Origin of Evil, ed. Characterization is different with poor people like Cecilia Jupe or Rachael. The most striking example that might show social inequality might be that of Bounderby advising Stephen Blackpool to avoid divorcing his drunken wife; he tells him: “There is a law […]. Industrialization and Utilitarianism in Dickens' Hard Times Charles Dickens uses his fictitious town in Hard Times to represent the industrialization of England at that time or close to it. These people are hated by Gradgrind, Bounderby and other utilitarians because they represent everything that is shunned in utilitarianism such as love, imagination, and humor. Charles Dickens, an author witnessing firsthand the harsh impacts of the industrial revolution, wrote a novel that contains in it some of the themes still present in degrowth discourse today.

p. 225-232. Purely theoretically, it can be proven that Utilitarianism poses a threat to humanity. of the Communist Party 1848 here highlights the state portrayed

Among those critics, Charles Dickens stands as the reformer who brought his perspicacity to his readers through his writings; Dickens’ comedy and irony pervade his satire in order to show how the Industrial Revolution has eroded the sense of purpose in human life.