Tolerate at least 6% NaCl and 100 mg/kg NaNO2. Packaging of Chilled Meat and its Spoilage Therefore, packaging in a saturated carbon dioxide atmosphere is used primarily for long-term bulk storage of raw meat, such as in the case of lengthy transport to remote markets, where it is subsequently removed and packed in oxygen-containing packaging for retail sale. • freshness indicators that detect microbial metabolites, e.g. Because of the lack of oxygen, the dominant microflora on saturated carbon dioxide-packaged meat include Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Carnobacterium (similar to vacuum packaging), producing lactic acid and having a more acceptable ‘cheesy’ odour. Ice crystals cause physical damage to muscle cell membranes; this is more so during slow freezing, where larger crystals are formed, than during rapid freezing.

Under good conditions (e.g. All the body parts become liquified at this stage. https://www.britannica.com/science/rigor-mortis. with canned meats sealed in a metal container with a non corrosive surface and treated at 105–130°C; this kills all vegetative forms; spores are either destroyed or injured to such an extent that they are rendered unable to germinate in the product. Meat quality problems associated with abnormal patterns of acidification Meat Science 36, 105–121. Therefore, to prevent microbial spoilage, meat should be stored at −12°C (frozen meat) or preferably at −18°C or less (deep-frozen meat). This type of packaging is aimed at incorporation of certain indicators either of meat spoilage or of health hazards, or of both, that would easily and visibly warn when the meat is no longer acceptable. They are added to meat in concentrations of up to 500 mg/kg (i.e. Muscle Function At slaughter, myoglobin is normally saturated with oxygen (oxy-Mb, Fe++, having a pink–red colour), but after slaughter oxygen is spent and meat predominantly contains myoglobin (Mb, Fe++, having a purple colour). If frozen meat is defrosted slowly by placing it at refrigertion temperatures (e.g. Depending on conditions, e.g. The importance of rigor for meat quality The unpleasant sensory characteristic of aerobically spoiled meat is a consequence of the accumulation of a complex mixture of microbial metabolites. Pasteurization in water or steam at temperatures <100°C as applied, for example, to various sausages (e.g. Basic Characteristics of Meat Traditionally, red meat carcasses are cooled by holding them overnight in refrigerated rooms operating at about 2°C. Subsequently, meat becomes more tender only after sufficient ageing. 3. The process can be speeded up by using machines with multiple, hollow needles to inject a more concentrated solution deeply into the meat, followed by mechanical treatments of the meat (in ‘massaging’ or ‘tumbling’ machines). Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is a reactive, unstable, toxic compund, so is added to meat in concentrations of less than 100–200 mg/kg (i.e. The actin and myosin filaments remain contracted and the muscles remain tense. The type of dominant flora in MAP-packaged meat depends on the gas composition. In the advanced stage, a putrid odour is noticeable due to accumulation of sulphur compounds, ammonia and amines – particularly if Pseudomonas is dominant – and of acetoin, diacetyl and 3-methylbutanol, particularly if Brochothrix is dominant. 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