Book II contains the succession of Cambyses, Cyrus’s son, his plan to attack Egypt, and an immensely long account of that unique land and its history. At the beginning of The Histories, Herodotus sets out his reasons for writing it: Here are presented the results of the enquiry carried out by Herodotus of Halicarnassus. Herodotus claims to have traveled extensively around the ancient world, conducting interviews and collecting stories for his book, almost all of which covers territories of the Persian Empire. When the nations try to meet for diplomacy, their efforts fail. The culture of the Scythians: religion, burial rites, Darius's failed attack on Scythia and consequent retreat, The story of the Minyæ (descendants of the, The reorganizing of the Athenian tribes by, Aristagoras's failed request for help from Sparta, and successful attempt with Athens, The burning of Sardis, and Darius's vow for revenge against the Athenians, The abandonment of the Ionian fleet by the, The defeat of the Ionian fleet by the Persians, The destruction of 300 ships in Mardonius's fleet near, The order of Darius that the Greeks provide him, The history behind Sparta having two kings and their powers, The arrest of the traitors in Aegina by Cleomenes and the new king, The suicide of Cleomenes in a fit of madness, possibly caused by his war with, The Spartans late arrival to assist Athens, The death of Miltiades after a failed attack on, The quarrel between which son should succeed Darius in which, The defeat of the Egyptian rebels by Xerxes.

Most of what we know about the Battle of Marathon is from Herodotus. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. They do battle against the Persians at Plataea and win, splitting the spoils. Xerxes uses infrastructure to bolster his forces. There is good reason to believe that he was in Athens, or at least in central Greece, during the early years of the Peloponnesian War, from 431, and that his work was published and known there before 425. Eurybiades replaces Leonidas. Cleomenes is driven mad by constant assassination attempts and he kills himself. And then there is the sheer narrative power of his writing...The old master keeps calling us back.[3]. He goes from the cosmos to the atom, ranging between fate and the gods, on the one hand, and the ability of the individual to make a difference, on the other. Alexander I of Macedon takes center stage, and we learn his ancestry, and we learn of his decision to stay at war with Persia instead of seeking peace. But he is more than a historian. Gyges seizes the throne and conquers Candaules in combat. On the legacy of The Histories by Herodotus, historian Barry S. Strauss writes: He is simply one of the greatest storytellers who ever wrote. Not affiliated with Harvard College. Instead of settling in one place, Herodotus spent his life traveling from one Persian territory to another. Themistocles leads the attack on Andros, and Xerxes barely escapes, and in the process, he loses access to an entire army that he had hired. Herodotus takes the reader from the rise of the Persian Empire to its crusade against Greek independence, and from the stirrings of Hellenic self-defense to the beginnings of the overreach that would turn Athens into a new empire of its own. He headed to Macedonia and visited all the islands of the Greek Archipelago: Rhodes, Cyprus, Delos, Paros, Thasos, Samothrace, Crete, Samos, Cythera and Aegina. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription.

"Homer, poet and historian".

This difference had to be explained to his readers, and to this end he describes the empire. Eventually, Xerxes's army gets close enough to Athens that they evacuate the city, and do battle at Salamis, and since they can swim, they survive when their ships go down, but the Persians often sink because they don't know how. that he called “The Histories.” (It is from Herodotus’ work that we get the modern meaning of the word “history.”) In part, “The Histories” was a straightforward account of the wars. One likely opinion is that Herodotus began with a plan for the history of the war and that later he decided on a description of the Persian Empire itself. They describe the geography of each state the Persians conquered and tell about their people and customs. This excursus on the country’s natural and man-made marvels sets the scene for his account of Egypt’s invasion in 525 BCE by the Persian king Cambyses, Cyrus’ son, in the following Book.The first part of Book 2 focuses on the geography of Egypt and the mysteries of the Nile; the … Herodotus describes the history and constituent parts of the Persian Empire in Books I–IV. Fehling, Detlev (1989)., Age of the Sage - Transmitting the Wisdoms of the Ages - Biography of Herodotus, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Herodotus, Herodotus - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Book V describes further Persian advances into Greece proper from the Hellespont and the submission of Thrace and Macedonia and many more Greek cities to Persian might, then the beginning of the revolt of the Greek cities of Ionia against Persia in 499, and so to the main subject of the whole work. The Greeks are defeated and retreat. The animals of Egypt are horrifying: cats, crocodiles, hippopotamuses, pythons, and cobras all live in Egypt.

Herodotus’ encyclopedic method did not leave much room for analysis. In preparation to fight against the Persians, the Ionian army receives help from Dionysius of Phocaea. In the experiment, children are deprived of language. After this, we learn some Egyptian history, like Cheops building the Great Pyramid of Giza, using revolutionary machinery. Darius I comes to power in Persia. Why? Find summaries for every chapter, including a Histories Chapter Summary Chart to help you understand the book. Moreover kites and swallows remain there through the year and do not leave the land; and cranes flying from the cold weather which comes on in the region of Scythia come regularly to these parts for wintering: if then it snowed ever so little in that land through … After some stories about minor characters, we learn that Babylon was defeated by a clever man named Zopyrus. After Herodotus, historical analysis became an indispensable part of intellectual and political life. Now that title is one that he richly deserves. He explains who is powerful in Asia Minor, including Candaules, Gyges, Alyattes, and Croesus, among others. His narrative ability is one of the reasons...those who call Herodotus the father of history. Written in 440 BC in the Ionic dialect of classical Greek, The Histories serves as a record of the ancient traditions, politics, geography, and clashes of various cultures that were known in Western Asia, Northern Africa and Greece at that time. Sometime around the year 425 B.C., Herodotus published his magnum opus: a long account of the Greco-Persian Wars that he called “The Histories.” (The Greek word “historie” means “inquiry.”) Before Herodotus, no writer had ever made such a systematic, thorough study of the past or tried to explain the cause-and-effect of its events. He decides not to give the throne to his son when he dies, giving it to Xerxes I. chronicled nearly 30 years of war and tension between Athens and Sparta. The kings of Cyrene are listed in order, and then there is a list of African people groups. The purpose is to prevent the traces of human events from being erased by time, and to preserve the fame of the important and remarkable achievements produced by both Greeks and non-Greeks; among the matters covered is, in particular, the cause of the hostilities between Greeks and non-Greeks.

We meet a bad king who reigns and dies in Athens named Peisistraos. In Persia, we learn of Artemisia, a priestess who serves the military as counsel. His method in the account of the empire is to describe each division of it not in a geographical order but rather as each was conquered by Persia—by the successive Persian kings Cyrus, Cambyses, and Darius.

(The Carians, of Minoan descent, had arrived in that part of Asia Minor before the Greeks had.) and the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. [2] Written in 430 BC in the Ionic dialect of classical Greek, The Histories serves as a record of the ancient traditions, politics, geography, and clashes of various cultures that were known in Greece, Western Asia and Northern Africa at that time. Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. An editor The Histories essays are academic essays for citation. Omissions?

Although Leonidas lost the battle, his death at Thermopylae was seen as a heroic sacrifice because he sent most more, The Athenian philosopher Plato (c.428-347 B.C.) The advice given to Xerxes on invading Greece: The dreams of Xerxes in which a phantom frightens him and Artabanus into choosing invasion, The preparations for war, including building the, The request by Pythius to allow one son to stay at home, Xerxes's anger, and the march out between the butchered halves of Pythius's son, The destruction and rebuilding of the bridges built by the, The siding with Persia of many Greek states, including, The destruction of 400 Persian ships due to a storm, The small Greek force (approx. In 443 B.C., Herodotus joined a group of Athenians who set out to colonize a city, Thurii, in southern Italy. "Some demonstrably false source citations". in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, a lively commercial center on the southwestern coast of Asia Minor.