[110] Dominican gunboats were also making depredations on Haiti's coasts. ", https://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/18/world/americas/18americans.html?_r=0, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Demographics_of_Haiti&oldid=983079198, Articles with dead external links from November 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia articles needing copy edit from September 2020, Articles needing additional references from September 2020, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 October 2020, at 03:26.

[282], Occasionally, families who are unable to care for children financially may send them to live with a wealthier family as a restavek, or house servant. [55], The brutality of slave life led many slaves to escape to mountainous regions, where they set up their own autonomous communities and became known as Maroons.

[123][126], The occupation greatly improved some of Haiti's infrastructure and centralized power in Port-au-Prince. At 27,750 sq km Haiti is the third largest country in the Caribbean behind Cuba and the Dominican Republic, the latter sharing a 360-kilometre (224 mi) border with Haiti. This includes the mulatto minority who denote corresponding European ancestry, notably from French settlers. In 2006, Approximately 800,000 Haitians resided in the United States (especially in the Miami and New York City areas), 60,000 Haitians were living in France (especially Paris) 40,000 in Canada (especially Montreal) while 80,000 were dispersed between the Bahamas and other Caribbean Islands. [179] However MINUSTAH proved controversial, as their at times heavy-handed approach to maintaining law and order and several instances of abuses, including the alleged sexual abuse of civilians, provoked resentment and distrust amongst ordinary Haitians. Rara is a festival celebrated before Easter. 20 Feb. 2017. [156] Demonstrations occurred in Gonaïves in 1985 which then spread across the country; under pressure from the United States, Duvalier left the country for France in February 1986. [148] The waterfront area of Port-au-Prince was redeveloped to allow cruise ship passengers to walk from the docks to cultural attractions. The median age was 25 years, with a mean average age of 27 years. Now It Is Fumbling Its Effort to Atone", "Haiti – Inauguration : Michel Martelly, 56th President of Haiti", "Aristide Says He Is Ready to Follow Duvalier Back to Haiti", "Jean-Claude Duvalier, former Haitian dictator, dies aged 63", "Haiti's 'Baby Doc' in surprise return from exile", "Michel Martelly, Haiti's President, Departs Without a Successor", "Haiti says election could drag on for months, protests grow", "Haiti – FLASH : The elections of October 9 postponed", "Résultats préliminaires des élections présidentielles du 20 Novembre 2016 pic.twitter.com/i9GsrkkU8p", "Businessman Moise wins Haiti election in first round – provisional results", "Haiti: Thousands protest against corruption", "A dam for the people, and A people damned", "Whose Rock Is It?

There is a chronic shortage of health care personnel and hospitals lack resources, a situation that became readily apparent after the January 2010 earthquake. In an interview with Unreported World, the prison governor stated that around 529 detainees were never sentenced, there are 3,830 detainees who are in prolonged detained trial detention. [377] According to the 2013 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Report, Haiti has steadily boosted net enrollment rate in primary education from 47% in 1993 to 88% in 2011, achieving equal participation of boys and girls in education. [307], Tap tap buses are colorfully painted buses or pick-up trucks that serve as share taxis. Following a series of short-lived presidencies, François 'Papa Doc' Duvalier took power in 1956, ushering in a long period of autocratic rule that was continued by his son Jean-Claude 'Baby Doc' Duvalier that lasted until 1986; the period was characterised by state-sanctioned violence against the opposition and civilians, corruption, and economic stagnation.

After almost four years of recession, the economy grew by 1.5% in 2005. [239][240][241][242] In March 2004, at the time of Aristide's kidnapping, a BBC article wrote that the Bush administration State Department stated that Aristide had been involved in drug trafficking. 2013). For example, a rooster often represents Aristide and the red and blue colors of the Haitian flag often represent his Lavalas party. [289], Haiti exports crops such as mangoes, cacao, coffee, papayas, mahogany nuts, spinach, and watercress. Haiti's climate is tropical with some variation depending on altitude. [230], Haiti's Ministry of Defense is the main body of the armed forces. ", "Candidate of Haiti's Poor Leads in Early Tally With 61% of Vote", "UN seeks almost US$108 million for Haiti floods", "Haiti's government falls after food riots", "In Haiti, Global Failures on a Cholera Epidemic", "A year of indecision leaves Haiti recovery at a standstill", "U.N. Brought Cholera to Haiti.

[110] President Pierrot decided to open a campaign against the Dominicans, whom he considered merely as insurgents, however the Haitian offensive of 1845 was stopped on the frontier. People aged 15 and younger counted for roughly a third of the population. A notable bust in recent years[when?] [361], The anchor of Christopher Columbus's largest ship, the Santa María now rests in the Musée du Panthéon National Haïtien (MUPANAH), in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Americas Watch Committee (U.S.), National Coalition for Haitian Refugees, Caribbean Rights (Organization). Hispanic residents in Haiti are mostly Cuban and Dominican. Haiti is subject to periodic droughts and floods, made more severe by deforestation. [193][194] In 2011 both former dictator Jean-Claude Duvalier and Jean-Bertrand Aristide returned to Haiti; attempts to try Duvalier for crimes committed under his rule were shelved following his death in 2014. [286][287][288] Roughly 40–50% of Haitians work in the agricultural sector. [91], The Institute for the Protection of National Heritage has preserved 33 historical monuments and the historic center of Cap-Haïtien. Yes, the Haitians Care", "Navassa Island: A Photographic Tour (1998–1999)", "Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake", "Deformation of Jamaica and motion of the Gonâve microplate from GPS and seismic data", "Entiquillo-Plantain Garden Strike-Slip Fault Zone: A Major Seismic Hazard Affecting Dominican Republic, Haiti and Jamaica", "Haiti/ Menace de Catastrope Naturelle / Risque sismique élevé sur Port-au-Prince", ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE USAID/HAITI NORTH PARK POWER PROJECT, "1987 Constitution of the Republic of Haiti", "Création de cinq nouvelles communes par décret présidentiel", "Haïti – Politique: 5 nouvelles communes en Haïti", "Haiti becomes a member of the African Union", "Long distance relationship: Haiti's bid to join the African Union", "Despite reports, Haiti not joining the African Union", "Missions et Attributions du Ministère de la Défense", "Haiti a step closer to having army again", "2006 Corruption Perceptions Index reinforces link between poverty and corruption", "Haiti: The Long Road to Recovery, Public Broadcasting Service", "Probe of Aristide administration finds evidence of embezzlement", "Some 437,000 people murdered worldwide in 2012, according to new UNODC study", "Haiti among safest destinations in the Americas, say recent studies", "Haiti earthquake fails to deter hotel boom", "Haiti: governance, Rule of Law, and Security", "Malnutrition killing inmates in Haiti jails", "Living hell: Officials alarmed by upsurge of inmates dying in Haiti prisons", "International Human Development Indicators: Haiti", "Before fall of Aristide, Haiti hit by aid cutoff by", "Haiti: Enhanced Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries", "$1 Billion Is Pledged to Help Haiti Rebuild, Topping Request", "Haiti's police struggle to control ravaged capital", "Haiti fears grows despite surge in relief effort", "Universidad de Haití donada por RD se llamará ahora 'Roi Henry I, "República Dominicana: Ayuda a su vecino Haití después del terremoto", "UN Office of the Special Envoy for Haiti Key Facts as of March 2012", "What does Haiti have to show for the US$13 billion in earthquake aid?-NBC News.com", "Recycling helps clean up Haiti, create new income – Business – The Boston Globe", "How Haiti's Future Depends on American Markets", "Transmitting and Distributing Electricity in Haiti", "Vant Bèf Info Énergie : le projet d'électrification 24/24 présenté aux Citoyens haïtiens -", "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency", "Latin America Shouldn't Bet Everything On Remittances", "Frager, Haiti: shortening the perfume chain to become world number one", "Perfume manufacturers must cope with the scarcity of precious supplies", "FEATURE-Perfumers promote fair trade for Haiti's 'super-crop, "Environmental Accessment of the USAID/Haiti North Park Power Project", "All About Money: Gourdes, Dollars and Sense for Work and Life in Haiti", "Best Western International targets 120 new hotel projects in 2013", "Tourism minister's plan aims to reveal Haiti's 'hidden beauty, "Marriott announces first hotel in Haiti", "More than 300,000 people celebrated the Carnival 2012 in Les Cayes", "Clintons land in Haiti to showcase industrial park", "Clintons preside at star-studded opening of Haitian industrial park", "State Dept. [234][20], Haiti has consistently ranked among the most corrupt countries in the world on the Corruption Perceptions Index. This is a list of notable Haitian people. A 2012 genetic study on Haitian and Jamaican Y-chromosomal ancestry has revealed that both populations "exhibit a predominantly Sub-Saharan paternal component, with haplogroups A1b-V152, A3-M32, B2-M182, E1a-M33, E1b1a-M2, E2b-M98, and R1b2-V88" comprising (77.2%) of the Haitian and (66.7%) of Jamaican paternal gene pools. [253], Unless families are able to provide the necessary funds for inmates to appear before a judge there is a very slim chance the inmate would have a trial, on average, within 10 years. [citation needed], The Haitian Carnival has been one of the most popular carnivals in the Caribbean. [19] The remainder are of European or Arab descent, the descendants of settlers (colonial remnants and contemporary immigration during World War I and World War II). It occupies the western three-eighths of the island which it shares with the Dominican Republic.

One went so far as to say, "the total number of battle victims and casualties of repression and consequences of the war might have reached, by the end of the pacification period, four or five times that – somewhere in the neighborhood of 15,000 persons." Youth attend parties at nightclubs called discos, (pronounced "deece-ko"), and attend Bal. [169][170], Elections were held in 1995 which were won by René Préval, gaining 88% of the popular vote, albeit on a low turnout. [128][123] Sisal was also introduced to Haiti, and sugarcane and cotton became significant exports, boosting prosperity. [149], In 1956–57 Haiti underwent severe political turmoil; Magloire was forced to resign and leave the country in 1956 and he was followed by four short-lived presidencies. [58] In the north of the island, slaves were able to retain many ties to African cultures, religion and language; these ties were continually being renewed by newly imported Africans. The official languages of Haiti are French and Haitian Creole. [7] In Haiti's case, the fertility rate nearly tripled after the quake, and is likely to remain elevated (above pre-quake levels) for long after.[8]. [378] Charity organizations, including Food for the Poor and Haitian Health Foundation, are building schools for children and providing necessary school supplies. [255], In confined living spaces for 22–23 hours a day, inmates are not provided with latrines and are forced to defecate into plastic bags and leave them outside their cells. [195][196][197][193] In 2013, Haiti called for European nations to pay reparations for slavery and establish an official commission for the settlement of past wrongdoings. Reptiles are common, with species such as the rhinoceros iguana, Haitian boa, American crocodile and gecko.[222]. The Massif du Nord is an extension of the Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic.