If the warlords remained, China would remain divided. Not trying to defeat GMD, but impose revolutionary ideology onto Chinese people. USSR begins to withdraw from Manchuria. It seemed as though Manchuria had been won by the GMD, but despite their early military achievements they continue to govern the region as they had others during the war with Japan, and this led to political defeat. The Third Principle of Sun Yixian's, 'the People's Livelihood,' was often call 'socialism,' which convinced the Comintern that this was a party they could back. Regionalism continued under Yuan's rule and became the key obstacle to a united China. Sun stated that he and his party had three guiding principles: A key cause of the civil war in China was the increasing lack of unity in the country by the second decade of the 20th century. This was the beginning of the war proper between Japan and China.

Once in power, a period of consolidation would be needed to rid China of the remnants of the 'olg regime. One long term cause of the Chinese Civil war is the Opium War.

Zhang wanted to stay in western Sichuan, or go further west to have closer access to the USSR. (The Comintern then blamed Li Lisan by saying he had misunderstood its orders.) Women treated as equals for first time in Chinese history. GMD only controlled territory around the capital and areas in the south. At first the GMD, with more troops and better equipment, forced the communists onto the defensive. In this fashion the communist won peasant confidence and the process began the transformation - the modernisation - of rural China.". When the CCP were in power, consolidation occurred; removing remnants of the 'old regime.'. The peasant farmers were able to use the land and sell their produce, creating vibrant markets in these rural areas and increasing living standards. China, it seemed, had joined the Allies in the war. Here they set up a communist base centred on the town of Yan'an.

Maos' revolution would be based on the peasants.

Mao claimed the country was now united, he proclaimed this at Tiananmen Square, symbolic as it had been the centre of the Chinese universe under the Qing dynasty.

The choice the Chinese people had was between Maoism, and with its total restructuring of society, economy, and government, and the nationalists' policy, which basically involved maintaining the status quo. The Sino-Soviet split worsened, culminating in border clashes in 1969. The GMD had been set up by Sun Yat sen in 1912. The Capital, Nanjing, was relocated 1,200km to the west to Congqing for the remainder of the war. Students led a mass demonstration in Beijing against the warlords, traditional Chinese culture and the Japanese. The GMD destroyed all the boats at the Yangtze River crossing in an attempt to rout Mao's forces. Recommended Citation. This involvement of regional armies began to move away from centralized control, which would result in the Warlord Era in the 1920s. Mao criticised the strategy the CCP used at the river, where around 50,000 died. Mao had 10,000 left in his army, and this force finally met up with 45,000 men under the command of Zhang in Sichuan. Any attempt by the GMD to wipe out the CCP presence with massive attacks and looting of villages would only increase hostility to the nationalists and improve the position of the communists. Jiang Jieshi taken hostage by warlord Zhang Xueliang in Xi'an. In April the PLA launched the final series of offensives, taking Nanjing and then Shanghai in May. The army would take over the control of the towns, working to prevent crime, control food and establish these activities of support for the CCP. Both the GMD and the CCP wanted a unified China.

Jiang met Mao along the western provinces of Yunnan and Tibet, the GMD destroyed all the boats at Yangtze River, attempting to disrupt Mao's rout. Following a revolution in 1911, which overthrew the Manchu dynasty, the new Republic failed to take hold and China continued to be exploited by foreign powers, lacking any strong central government. Jiang's forces removed the planks, stopping the CCP. Another was to unify the disunited country – this made it difficult to implement economic problems. Here they built up their military forces − the Red Army.

The whole of northern China, including Manchuria, was now under communist control. Jack Gray: "by 1945 about 40 per cent of their basic needs were supplied by [the garrison system]". Local people had built a bridge, using their own resources to pay for it, from 13 heavy iron chains covered by wooden planks. He failed to win mass support and his government relied on a narrow, wealthy section of businessmen and landlords for its survival. Historians do not agree on the military contribution of the CCP in the war against the Japanese.

They agreed that the first step to this was to get rid of the warlords, and in 1922 they formed the First United Front.

Many in the USA initially saw the communist victory as inevitable given the lack of support that existed for the nationalists in China in 1949; nevertheless, as the Cold War intensified and McCarthyism took hold in the USA, state officials were accused of having 'lost' China. This was one of the reasons for the deteriorating relationship between the two powers. What were the reasons for the communist success? At the beginning of the second stage of the civil war, the Americans transported GMD forces by sea and air to the north of China, and US troops occupied Tianjin and Beijing to hold them until the GMD were ready.

The technological and industrial advancement was also a priority, much like.

In addition, the poor treatment of peasants by the GMD forces further degraded their popularity. The polarisation of the international political context through the development of the Cold War meant that China's civil war could not be an internal struggle alone. Hundred Regiments assault on Japanese by Red Army.

The GMD announced that it was the legitimate government of China and the new capital and seat of government would be Nanjing. In addition, several of the nationalist commanders were in fact communist agents.

Most provinces then declared themselves independent of Beijing. 1941-1945, rectification campaign ensured Maoist ideology, with no deviation, was established.

', Li Lisan was replaced by a group of Moscow graduates known as the 'Twenty-Eight Bolsehviks' and the influence of the Comintern remained strong enough to move Mao as chief commissar of the Red Army.

In January 1935 the CCP, this time using 'guerrilla tactics,' managed to capture the town of Zunyi. Jiang's GMD would have recognised disputed border territory along frontiers in Manchuria and Xinjiang as Soviet. Land reform continued in all rural areas captured by the communists.

Soviet planners and engineers in China developed 200 construction projects in the 1950s; traditional buildings were pulled down for Soviet-style constructions and Soviet scientific technology was prioritised in China over Chinese technology. In January 1935, the CCP captured the town of Zunyi using Guerilla tactics. Sun's party reformed as the Guomindang (GMD) in 1912, and declared itself as a parliamentary party. 2361, The Causes and Effects of the Chinese Civil War, 1927-1949, Jennifer Lynn Cucchisi, Seton Hall University, Cucchisi, Jennifer Lynn, "The Causes and Effects of the Chinese Civil War, 1927-1949" (2002).

Fifth Encirclement Campaign. Mao wanted to go north to the Shaanxi Soviet, where they could fight the Japanese. The first three Campaigns were launched between December 1930 and September 1931. James Sheridan: the reason CCP achieved enthusiastic backing of peasants was "by meeting the local, immediate needs of the peasants through reformist and radical social polices by providing leadership for the defence of peasant communities against the Japanese.

In June, General Marshall managed to get Jiang to agree to another truce.